Drug Abuse And Alcoholism

The words medication and drugs are generally used interchangeably. Medication is a substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, mitigation (relief), or prevention of disease. The term drug also has the connotation of an illicitly obtained substance such as heroin, cocaine or amphetamines.When there is chronic, repeated use, without medical supervision, of non-medical drugs and alcohol in quantities large enough to cause uncontrollable behavioural changes with a resulting dependency on these substances, there exist drug abuse and alcoholism respectively. We live in a drug oriented society, and there is a drug to meet everyone’s needs such as tranquilizers, barbiturates, or amphetamines. Under supervision by a competent physician, this have beneficial effects. Unfortunately, it is a relatively simple matter for an individual to obtain these drugs illicitly and he may use them as his passport to UTOPIA. The indiscriminate use of drugs to shut out life’s problems is not peculiar to any one segment of the population. People in all socioeconomic levels, age groups, and educational levels are seeking the same answer. Unfortunately drug abuse only adds many huge problems later.Drug dependency is a mental problem on the abuser’s part, and a sure for of disorder. It is a sign of impairment of functioning and the individual is usually considered to be deviating from the normal and is considered as psychoneurotic. There is a state of consciousness alteration and a defect on personality.Classification of mental disordersA. Psychoses
a. Senile and presenile dementia
b. Alcoholic psychosis
c. Psychosis associated with intracranial infections
d. Psychosis associated with other cerebral conditions
e. Psychosis associated with other physical conditionsB. Psychoses not associated with physical conditions
a. Major affective disorders
b. Schizophrenia
c. Paranoid states
d. Other psychosisC. NeurosesD. Personality disorders and certain other non psychotic mental disorders
a. Personality disorders
b. Sexual deviations
c. Alcoholism
d. Drug dependenceE. Psychophysiologic disorders
F. Special symptoms
G. Transient situational disturbances
H. Behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence
I. Mental retardation
J. Conditions without manifest psychiatric disorders and nonspecific condition
1. social maladjustment without manifest psychiatric disorder
2. Nonspecific conditionsPathology, symptoms, therapies and approaches for the major diagnostic entities in psychiatryPsychoses
A. Acute brain syndrome- symptoms from which patient usually recovers since the situation is often reversible and temporary in naturePathology
a. Infection1. Intraxcranial or nervous system; e.g., enxcephalitis or meningitis2..Systemic or toxic e.g., Pneumonia or typhoidb. Trauma to the headc. Circulatory disturbances resulting in impairment of blood flow tothe braind. Metabolic disorders- electrolyte imbalance; e.g., dehydration,diarrhea, vomitinge. Drug intoxication or poisoningf. Alcoholic intoxicationSymptoms
a. Delirium and its accompanying confusion, hallucinations anddelusionsb. Disorientation and confusion as to time, place, identityc. Memory defects for both recent and remote factsd. Slurring of speech may occur along with an indistinct pronoun-ciation or use of wordse. Tremors, incoordination, imbalance, and incontenence maydevelopTherapy
a. Reduce causative agent such as fever, toxins, drugs or alco-
b. Prevent further damage
c. Provide diet high in calories, protein and vitamins
d. Provide mild sedative if necessaryNursing intervention
a. Provide quite environment, reduce stimuli
b. Provide assurance to patient and family
c. Since liability of mood is common, plan care so that the staff approaches these patients when they appear receptive
d. Ensure adequate intake and output
e. Observe for changing physiologic and neurologic symptoms

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